Introduction to Echocardiography

Echo cardiology is a branch of Ultrasound imaging that focuses on the use realtime ultrasound imaging techniques to assess the structure and function of the heart.

Basic echo examinationinvolves the use of ultrasound waves tconverted to grey scale images in real time.

Imaging Plane and Sample Volume positions for different flow areas

Mitral Valve Flow

Left Atrial Flow

Tricuspid Valve 

Right Atrial Flow

Aortic Valve Flow

Left Ventricular Outflow 

Pulmonary Valve Flow

Ventricular Outflow 



M-Mode Echo cardiology examination:

one-dimensional trace of the heart wall and valves in real time provides provides valuable information in terms of time rate, ratio and proprtional volumatric comparitions of heart chambers, wall thickness, valve movment comnined with ECG gives advantage of measurments and calculation at specific position of heart's systolic of dyastolic state of heart cycle.


B-Mode Examination

B Mode gives more detailed image of the heart in real time. Producing two-dimensional echo with cross sectional real time view of the heart depending on probe position and orientation by generating real-time images showing the motion of the heart walls and valves. This enables the evaluation of cardiac function and the detection of abnormalities such as valve disorders or wall motion abnormalities.


CW-Mode examination:

Continuous Doppler is a technique used in echo cardiology to assess blood flow through the heart and blood vessels. It measures the velocity and direction of blood flow, allowing the detection of conditions such as stenosis or regurgitation of valves.


Pulse Doppler:

PW is another Doppler technique that measures blood flow velocites at specific points in the cardiac cycle. It provides information about the timing and pattern of blood flow, helping to calculate and compare various parameters of heart to detect & diagnose conditions like diastolic dysfunction or valvular regurgitation.


Doppler measurements are an important part in cardiac diagnostics. Doppler echocardiography    can be used to diagnose a variety of cardiac conditions and is used routinely during    examinations. Doppler echocardiography allows the cardiologist to determine flow    velocities within various chambers of the heart. Establishing normal values and know what influences and should allow the cardiologist to non-invasively diagnose a variety of pathological cardiac conditions, including abnormal transvalvular flow velocities.   

Patent Ductus Arterious (PDA), Left -to -Right and Right- to -Let Shunting, Atrial    Septal defects (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD), Aortic and Sub Aortic Stenosis,    aorto-pulmonary shunt (APS), Pulmonic Stenosis, Thromboembolism, Atrioventricular Valve Dysplasia (Tricuspid Valve and Mitral Valve) and complex diseases can all be accessed using Doppler Echocardiography.


Colour Doppler 

CFM is a technique that add color to the Doppler velocity images, allowing for a visual representation of blood flow direction and velocity. This aids in the diagnosis of conditions such as intracardiac shunts or abnormal blood flow patterns.


Power Doppler

Power Doppler is a sensitive None directional Doppler technique that enhances the detection of low-velocity blood flow. It is particularly useful in assessing blood flow in small vessels or detecting subtle abnormalities.


Tissue Doppler:

TDI: is a specialized technique that focuses on the evaluation of myocardial tissue motion. It provides information about the function of the heart muscle, helping to diagnose conditions such as myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy.

In summary, echo cardiology utilizes various imaging techniques to assess the structure and function of the heart. These techniques include basic and two-dimensional echo, as well as Doppler techniques such as continuous, pulse, colour, power, and tissue Doppler. These imaging modalities play a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of cardiac conditions.


Doppler Echocardiology can be used to measure the laminar flow and turbulent blood    flow across the valves. Non turbulent lower flows are measured using Pulse Wave Doppler    (PW).  To access subvalvular, valvular and supravalvular stenosis, valve regurgitation    and shunts Continuous Wave (CW) Doppler is used. Using PW and CW Spectral Doppler    it is possible to measure blood flow velocity, volume and pressure gradients across    valves and obstructions. Colour Flow Mapping is used to look for flow direction,    valve insufficiencies, septal defects and stenoses

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